Constitution, the federal government is obligated to assume responsibility for U. In terms thereof, donations between spouses, formerly invalid, were made legal and therefore enforceable.
There are often different types of price discrimination offered. Retail incentives[ edit ] A variety of incentive techniques may be used to increase market share or revenues at the retail level. Section 21 1 of the Act provides: The article does this by evaluating a necessarily select number of cases dealing with equality that have come before the Constitutional Court to find out whether the Court has consistently adopted a substantive notion of equality in its deliberations, an approach encouraged by the equality clause itself.
Race, Crime, and Punishment Just as conscious and unconscious racial notions helped define the drug problem, they have also helped shape political and policy responses to that problem.
Three for Two offers Lower prices for consumers who buy a higher quantity. In regard to mere differentiation the constitutional State is expected to act in a rational manner.
The theory of contestable markets argues that in some circumstances private monopolies are forced to behave as if there were competition because of the risk of losing their monopoly to new entrants. The effect of the prohibition is to state that in the eyes of the legal system all Rastafari are criminals.
Crack cocaine, which is made by dissolving powder cocaine in a solution of sodium bicarbonate and water, is smoked. Focusing on the indirect impact of the laws, the justices stated that, although the statutes were not directed at Rastafarians and appear to be neutral, nor intended to interfere with their religious practices, 57 [t]hey [the laws] impact severely, though incidentally, on Rastafari religious practices.
In all the circumstances which I have described, the provisions of section 21 do not have the purpose or effect of a compulsory acquisition or expropriation of the property of the solvent spouse whether by a public authority or at all.
It would have to question why the country has been willing to impose the burden of incarceration for drug offenses primarily on those who by virtue of race and poverty are already among the most marginalized in society. It follows that it is unnecessary to decide whether for the purposes of section 21 of the Act the Master or a trustee constitutes a public authority or whether the vesting is for a public purpose.
If you stay for over the weekend, the price will be lower, as business travellers will not want to stay over the weekend, just to get a cheaper flight. Single Market Abuse It arises when a dominant undertaking carrying out excess pricing which would not only have an exploitative effect but also prevent parallel imports and limits intra- brand competition.
Section 8 2 Analysis Differentiation that does not constitute a violation of section 8 1 may nonetheless constitute unfair discrimination for the purposes of section 8 2. At the very least, it affirms that difference should not be the basis for exclusion, marginalisation, stigma and punishment.
What was needed and this was reflected in the minority judgment was a contextual approach, one that took into consideration the effects of the legislation and the unique history of South Africa. It is so deceptively simple and so devastatingly injurious to say that those who are handicapped or of a different race, or religion, or colour or sexual orientation are less worthy.
Originating in the United States, affirmative action refers to provisions and programmes giving preferential treatment to members of certain groups considered to be in a disadvantaged position.
Had the minority judgment been adopted, Prince and other Rastafarians in the same position would have been able to continue to practise their religion, culture and choice of their profession without fear of a criminal conviction.
The first involves scarcity. If it is not on a specified ground, then, whether or not there is discrimination will depend upon whether, objectively, the ground is based on attributes and characteristics which have the potential to impair the fundamental human dignity of persons as human beings or to affect them adversely in a comparably serious manner.
The purpose and effect is clearly not to divest, save temporarily, the solvent spouse of the ownership of property that is in fact his or hers. The Constitutional Court unanimously held that certain provisions of the Child Care Act and the Guardianship Actwhich prevented a lesbian couple in a permanent relationship from jointly adopting children, violated the equality provision on two grounds: This is clearly an area where issues should be dealt with incrementally and on a case by case basis with special emphasis on the actual context in which each problem arises.
The very fact that Rastafari use cannabis exposes them to social stigmatisation Cocaine and Federal Sentencing Policy 19available at http: These include discount coupons, rebates, bulk and quantity pricing, seasonal discounts, and frequent buyer discounts.
Market definition may be difficult to measure but is important because if it is defined too broadly, the undertaking may be more likely to be found dominant and if it is defined too narrowly, the less likely that it will be found dominant. Time of Purchase This petrol station is offering cut-price fuel for two days a week.Price discrimination is a pricing strategy that charges customers different prices for the same product or service.
In pure price discrimination, the seller charges each customer the maximum price. PRICE DISCRIMINATION-Definition Price discrimination or price differentiation exists when sales of identical goods or services are transacted at different prices from the same provider.
Price Differentiation vs - Price Differentiation vs. Price Discrimination Essay introduction. Price Discrimination Price Discrimination Price differentiation and price discrimination: two terms used in Marketing and Economy.
In breast cancer, gene expression analyses have defined five tumor subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like and claudin-low), each of which has unique biologic and prognostic features.
Here, we comprehensively characterize the recently identified claudin-low tumor subtype. The clinical, pathological and biological features of claudin. Price Differentiation vs. Price Discrimination Price differentiation and price discrimination: two terms used in Marketing and Economy.
First of all, it is appropriate to. Description. Extensively revised and updated edition of the bestselling textbook, provides an overview of recent global airline industry evolution and future challenges.Download